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高考必考之英语内容:情态动词考点透视

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【高考必考之英语内容: 情态动词考点透视】
  命题特点

  考点点击:情态动词主要用来表示说话人的看法、态度等,它是英语动词中最难把握的一类,也是每年高考必考内容。

  命题热点:为情态动词的基本用法辨析,情态动词表示态度的用法辨析,情态动词表示推测的用法辨析,情态动词在虚拟语气中的运用。

  考查形式:主要体现在听力理解、单项填空和完形填空中。下面就近几年来高考试题中出现的情态动词的考点进行归纳分析,以便同学们复习掌握。

  典例精析

  一、考查情态动词的基本用法

  一些常见情态动词的非常用意义往往为高考考查的焦点,考生须确切理解其含义并根据句子意思选择正确的情态动词。

  例1:“The interest ______be divided into five parts, according to the agreement made by

  both sides.” declared the judge. (2004重庆)

  A. may B. should C. must D. shall

  例2:— The room is so dirty. ______ we clean it?

  — Of course. (2003北京春)

  A. Will B. Shall C. Would D. Do

  分析:上述两题均考查 shall的非常用含义,当shall用于一、三人称疑问句中时,表示征求对方意见;用于二、三人称陈述句中,表示说话人给对方的命令、警告、允诺或威胁等。上述三题答案分别为D、B。

  例3:He’s strange -- he ____ sit for hours without saying anything.

  A. shall B. will C. can D. must

  分析:will用来谈习惯和特性,尤其是不受时限必然发生的情况。本句意思为“他很怪,能一坐几个小时一句话也不说”。答案为B。

  例4:John, look at the time. _______ you play the piano at such a late hour?(2005全国Ⅲ)

  A. Must B. Can C. May D. Need

  例5:Tom, you _____leave all your clothes on the floor like this!(2005全国II)

  A. wouldn’t B. mustn’t C. needn’t D. may not

  分析:must用于疑问句,表示责备、抱怨的感情色彩,意思为“偏要,硬要、干嘛”;而mustn’t则表示禁止、不允许,是说话人强有力的劝告。故答案分别为A、B。

  例6:You can’t imagine that a well-behaved gentleman _____ be so rude to a lady. (2001上海)

  A. might B. need C. should D. would

  分析:在某些名词性从句中,should 表示惊异、意外等情绪,常译为“竟然”。答案分别为C。如:It seems unfair that this should happen to me. 真不公平,这件事竟然发生在我身上。

  例7:_____it rain tomorrow, the meeting would be put off.

  A. Should B. Would C. Could D. Must

  分析:在条件状语从句中,should 表示“万一”,即可表示不能实现的假设,又可表示可以实现的假设。该句意思为“万一明天下雨,会议就延期。”答案为A。

  例8:A left-luggage office is a place where bags ____ be left for a short time, especially at a railway station. (2003全国卷)

  A. should B. can C. must D. will

  例9:The World Wide Web is sometimes jokingly called the World Wide Wait because it ______be very slow. (2005浙江)

  A. should B. must C. will D. can

  分析:can 表示推测时常用于疑问和否定句中,用于肯定句中常常表示理论上的可能性,用来表达事件或情况可能发生(但并不牵涉到是否真的会发生)。故答案分别为B、D。

  二、考查情态动词的推测用法

  1、对现在或客观事实的推测

  对现在或客观事实的肯定推测一般用must, will, should, may(might)或could,语气依次递减。

  例10:Helen _____go on the trip with us but she isn’t quite sure yet. (2005安徽)

  A. shall B. must C. may D. can

  例11:—I’ve taken someone else’s green sweater by mistake.

  —It ___ Harry’s. He always wears green. (2005广东)

  A. has to be B. will be C. mustn’t be D. could be

  例12:That, I think, ____ be all that I want to say.

  A. can B. could C. will D. ought to

  分析:must的语气最强,译为“肯定”、“准是”、“想必是”;should的语气次之,译为“很可能”、“应该”,指按常理推测;may(might)译为“也许、大概”,表示把握不大的推断,后面常跟but。could的语气最弱,译为“也许”、“可能”。答案分别为C、D、C。

  对现在或客观事实的否定推测,常用cannot译为“根本不可能”、“想必不会”,表示推测的语气非常肯定, may not, might not或could not译为“可能不”、“也许不”,表示推测的语气不很肯定。

  例13:You might just as well tell the manufacturer that male customers ______ not like the design of the furniture.(2004上海春)

  A. must B. shall C. may D. need

  例14:--Isn’t that Ann’s husband over there?

  --No, it _______ be him ---I’m sure he doesn’t wear glasses. (2004全国Ⅰ)

  A. can’t B. must not C. won’t D. may not

  分析:在例13中,might just as well表示“最好……,还是……为好”,说明喜欢的可能性不大,故用may not。例14,根据后面的I’m sure可以看出,推测的语气较强,故用can’t译为“根本不可能”、“想必不会”,表示惊异、怀疑的感情色彩,常用于否定语气较强时。答案分别为C、A。

  对现在或客观事实的疑问推测,往往用can或could,而不用may/might。

  例15:Mr. Bush is on time for everything. How ______ it be that he was late for the opening ceremony?(2001上海春)

  A. can B. should C. may D. must

  分析:对现在或客观事实的疑问推测,往往用can或could,表示惊异、怀疑、困惑、失望等感情色彩。答案为A。

  2、对过去事实的推测

  对过去已发生事情的肯定推测常用 “must/may/might +have + v-ed”,“must+ have + v-ed”意思为“想必、准是、一定是”,语气非常肯定且只能用于肯定句,“may/might+ have + v-ed” 意思为“也许、或许”表示推测的把握不大,只能用于肯定或否定句,不用于疑问句;对过去的否定推测常用 “can/could /may’might not + have + v-ed”,意思为“不可能/可能没做过……”;对过去的疑问推测只用“can/could + have + v-ed”,意思为“可能已经……”。

  例16:He _______ have completed his work; otherwise, he wouldn’t be enjoying himself by seaside. (2005北京)

  A. should B. must C. wouldn’t D. can’t

  分析:根据后一分句判断,前一分句应该表示肯定完成了工作,故用“must+ have + v-ed”意思为“想必、准是、一定是”,语气非常肯定且只能用于肯定句。答案为B。

  例17:My sister met him at the Grand Theatre yesterday afternoon, so he _____ your lecture.(2000上海)

  A. couldn’t have attended B. needn’t have attended

  C. mustn’t have attended D. shouldn’t have attended

  分析:must表推测时,不用于否定,needn’t have +v-ed 表示“本来没有必要”,shouldn’t have +v-ed表示“本来不应该”,“can/could not + have + v-ed” 意思为“不可能做过……”。故答案为A。

  例18:--Do you know where David is? I couldn’t find him anywhere.

  -- Well. He ______ have gone far----his coat’s still here.(2005湖北)

  A. shouldn’t B. mustn’t C. can’t D. wouldn’t

  分析:can’t have gone far 在此表示现在对过去所发生事情的否定推测,意思为“现在不可能走远了”;答案为C。

  三、考查情态动词的虚拟用法

  例19:—I’ll tell Mary about her new job tomorrow.

  --You________ her last week. (2004福建)

  A. ought to tell B. would have told C. must tell D. should have told

  分析:对过去发生事情的责备或遗憾应用“情态动词+have + v-ed”,据此可排除答案A、C,而would+have +v-ed常用于过去的虚拟语气中,should(ought to)+ have + v-ed”表示本应该做某事而实际上没有做,含有责备的含义。其否定式表示某种行为不该发生但却发生了。故答案为D。

  例20:He paid for a seat, when he ______ have entered free. (2005山东)

  A. could B. would C. must D. need

  分析:“could+ have + v-ed” 用于肯定句中,表示本来能够做成某事的但结果没能做成,含有遗憾的意味,侧重有能力而没能做成。该句意思为:“他花钱买了座位,而他本来可以免费进去的”。答案为A。

  例21:You should not have swum in that river. You ____ have been eaten by fish.

  A. must B. may C. will D. might

  分析:前一分句的should not have swum表示责备,后一分句则表明有被鱼吃掉的可能性。“might+ have + v-ed” 用于肯定句中,表示本来有可能做成某事但结果没能做成,含有遗憾的意味,侧重有某种可能性但没能做成。

  例22:—Catherine, I have cleaned the room for you.

  —Thanks. You ______ it. I could manage it myself. (2005福建)

  A. needn’t do B. needn’t have done C. mustn’t do D. shouldn’t have done

  分析:“needn’t+ have + v-ed” 表示本来不必做某事而实际上做了某事,无批评责备之意,只是惋惜而已。如You needn’t have watered the flowers, for it is going to rain.你本不需要浇花的,因为天就要下雨了。答案为B。

  备考建议

  掌握情态动词的基本词义及其用法是把握情态动词的关键,同时要认真比较每个情态动词的用法,注意其细微差别,如shall, can, must, should, will的用法差异;熟悉每个情态动词的适用场合,根据语境及说话人的语气选择恰当的情态动词,如用于推测时,must只用于肯定句中,can一般不能用于肯定句中。may/might不能用于疑问句中;牢记情态动词表示推测的用法,尤其是对过去发生情况的推测;积累虚拟语气的用法,尤其是一些句势和特殊情况。

  06年展望

  随着高考命题改革的深入,命题的角度和思路都在翻新,但不管怎样变化,还是脱离不了词的基本词义、词与词在使用上的细微差别和基本的语法框架。通过对近几年高考情态动词考点的分析、探究,可以看出高考对情态动词的考查非常稳定,即情态动词的基本用法和推测用法。高考考点的 “稳定性”告诉我们:高考英语命题是有规律的,不仅有规律,而且有很强的规律性。在复习迎考过程中,不仅要认真准备书本上成百上千的知识点(这是基础),但更重要的还要去研究历届高考试题中的重要考点(这是捷径),提高复习效率。

      情态动词考点透视

  练兵场

  1. Has it been warned that all the children in this area ____ stay at their homes until the Bird Flu has been controlled?

  A. can B. willl C. may D. shall

  2. I told Sally how to get here, but perhaps I ____ for her.

  A. had to write it out B. must have written it out

  C. should have written it out D. ought to write it out

  3. Jack _____ yet, otherwise he would have telephoned me.

  A. mustn’t have arrived B. shouldn’t have arrived

  C. can’t have arrived D. needn’t have arrived

  4. Sir, you ______be sitting in this waiting room. It is for women and children only.

  A. mustn’t B. can’t C. won’t D. needn’t

  5. The driver has drunk too much wine and dangerous things _____ happen at any time.

  A. should B. can C. must D. need

  6. — Is John coming by train?

  — He should, but he _____ not. He likes driving his car.

  A. must B. can C. need D. may

  7. It has been announced that candidates _______ remain in their seats until all the papers have

  been collected.

  A. can B. will C. may D. shall

  8. Why did you throw the bottle out of the window? You ____ somebody.

  A. might hurt B. could have hurt C. would hurt D. must have hurt

  9. —Don’t forget to come to my birthday party tomorrow.

  —_______.

  A. I don’t B. I won’t C. I can’t D. I haven’t

  10. I didn’t see her in the meeting-room this morning. She ______ at the meeting.

  A. mustn’t have spoken B. shouldn’t have spoken

  C. needn’t have spoken D. couldn’t have spoken

  11.—Summer Holiday is drawing near. Are you going home for the holiday?

  —I haven’t decided yet. I ______ go home, but it depends on the weather.

  A. must B. need C. may D. will

  12. This couple had been separated twenty years, you _____imagine how happy they were when they met again.

  A. might B. will C. can D. must

  13. We ______last night, but we went to the concert instead.

  A. must have studied B. might study

  C. should have studied D. would study

  14. She _____ listen to records, alone in her room for hours. We just won’t interrupt her, for we know this is her usual way to stay in peace.

  A. might B. must C. will D. should

  15. -–Well done, Tom!

  -- Thanks, but given me more time, I ___ it much better.

  A. shouldn’t have done B. should have done

  C. might not do D. could have done

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